Foreign hos- pitals especially those from neighboring Thailand and Singapore have also set up rep- resentative offices with the aim of promoting medical tourism in their country. Under this policy, first introduced in the s, all citizens were registered as either agricultural or non-agricultural residents.
The rural poor often seek treatment from untrained health workers since doctors are not easily available. Internet cafes are common, but again only in cities. However, service issues, poor connectivity and other teething problems need to be addressed before it can be a threat to the reigning MPT.
Even electricity and water sources at home are available to a very select few. Both traditional herbal medicine and modern medicine prac- tices are followed here, and preference for the former is evident.
Since occu- pational fields in rural and urban domains are so diverse, there is a distinct contrast in earning capacities. In addition, they construct an image of a dangerously anti-social rural 'other' against which contrasting notions of urban civilisation and order can be built and maintained.
Per capita electricity consumption is about one-twentieth of Thai- land. Rural areas have health cen- ters, and the Township Health System intro- duced incontinues.
The rural urban divide is not going unnoticed and the government is keen to address this issue and efforts are on, to bridge the gap so as to improve economic efficiency.
Columbia University Press, And, by giving the impression of constantly impending social turmoil, these accounts help to generate a desire for strong central control, thus legitimating the role of the state.
First though, I will outline the recent history of rural to urban migration in China, and will briefly discuss the ways in which rural migrants are perceived and represented by urbanites and by the mainstream written media.
As I have noted in a previous issue of Intersections and elsewhere, there is a tendency for migrants to be characterised by urban citizens as a vast and unkempt horde of ignorant outsiders who pour 'blindly' into the cities, bringing dirt, disorder and crime.
Such migrants are known variously as the 'floating population' [liudong renkou], the 'tide of rural workers' [mingong chao], 'blind drifters' [mangliu], 'outsider workers' [wailai gong] and 'outsider sisters' [wailai mei], 'working sons' [dagong zai] and 'working sisters' [dagong mei]. Villages see only a small number of households connected with a tangle of wires to electricity poles.
In the s, government polices were amended to give rural laborers the right to move to urban areas on the eastern shore. Internet cafes are common, but again only in cities.
All these come under the Township Health Department that is responsible for providing primary and secondary healthcare. Insufficient salaries, lack of learning opportunities and difficult conditions are some of the deterrents that discourage doctors from serving in rural ar- eas. Housing is also usually either unavailable or more expensive for those without local registration, and kindergartens and schools either do not admit the children of migrants, or charge much higher fees.
A growing appetite for labour in these industries, due to global demand for their goods, is a key channel through which growth is realized. Insufficient salaries, lack of learning opportunities and difficult conditions are some of the deterrents that discourage doctors from serving in rural ar- eas.
In Together with Migrants. However, all the enrolled children do not complete primary school education. Pres- ident U Thein Sein addressed the National Workshop on Rural Development Strategic Framework in November last year, and elab- orated on making rural development a key focus area with emphasis on providing food security, poverty reduction and sustainable economic development.
The institutes of higher edu- cation are all in cities. Rural poverty is the result of a series of factors like small or no farms, poor output which is sold at low prices, limited availability of non agrarian jobs, and lack of credit facilities. Moreover, the growth of the market economy has both greatly stimulated and indeed depended on, an increased mobility of labour, including the flow of labour out of agriculture and into industry and services.
Regional disparities are clearly evident and poverty in rural areas is a big concern. Regional disparities are clearly evident and poverty in rural areas is a big concern. Villages see only a small number of households connected with a tangle of wires to electricity poles.
The gap between rural and urban development can be partly attributed to an urban bias and governmental policies which focus more on developing cities and urban areas. This, then, is one of the causes of peasants and their businesses slipping into crime and, in times of turbulence, becoming latent factors leading to large-scale turbulence.
Serious illnesses and deteriorating conditions push people towards specialist hospitals in Yan- gon and Mandalay, after traditional herbal medicines have also been tried and failed. Myanmar has abundance of water with potential annual volume of sur- face water being cubic km besides cubic km of ground water.
Villages get most of their water from springs, open wells and rivers, with dwindling supply during the dry season, which forces people to consume even contaminated water.
For the peasants of China, there is still no established social welfare system. In this process, they also have little else to lose and are therefore without fear. Serious illnesses and deteriorating conditions push people towards specialist hospitals in Yan- gon and Mandalay, after traditional herbal medicines have also been tried and failed.
The dangers for peasants in doing this, quite apart form the possibility of being chased or apprehended by criminals, is that they lose all connection with their government-based support system and governmental agencies.
At present telecommunication services are poor compared to other countries, and have been monopolized by MPT, the state owned enter- prise. This makes life in cities more appealing and attractive.migration, but more than 56 percent of the women who migrate thus do so across rural areas, again indicating a high prevalence of marital migration (Afsar, ).
In China in the s. In the last two decades in China, market-oriented reforms have radically changed the social landscape. One of the most significant developments has been the unprecedented growth in transient rural to urban migration, and the corresponding emergence of rural migrants as a new social group and as an object for analysis and discussion.
This paper examines the effects of migration and entry into garment work on marriage for young women in Bangladesh. The data comes from a study of female garment workers and their non-working.
Rural-Urban Migration is the movement of people from the countryside or villages to cities or towns. Rural-urban migration is a reaction to some of the prevailing conditions in the rural areas. The propensity to migrate from the rural areas to urban areas is presently high in West Africa, as a result of multifarious reasons.
Young rural women have been recruited into the urban labour market following the recent establishment of industrial zones around Yangon, the capital. This rural-urban migration is a new phenomenon in Myanmar.
Rural women, like women in general, may also perceive migration as way to escape traditional gender roles, gender-specific discrimi- nation or gender-based violence.Download